Safe Computing
How To Avoid Catching A Virus

When you open any Microsoft Word document that has a macro associated with it, Office 98 for the Mac OS gives you the option of disabling the macro so that there is no possibility of a virus being unleashed.

Computer viruses are small, invasive programs written by malevolent and misanthropic misfits that are designed to create havoc within your computer system. You get computer viruses in the same way that you catch the human variety; through contact with contaminated data. It's possible that such contamination can be introduced into the commercial software manufacturing process, but although I've heard of a few cases of people catching viruses from shrink-wrapped programs, it is quite rare.

Viruses are usually hidden within an infected program. When you run that program, the virus is activated which then goes on to infect other software on your hard disk. Viruses typically don't infect data and are not usually cross-platform, but there are exceptions. Viruses won't infect compressed files, but applications contained within a compressed file can be infected before they were compressed. Viruses will not infect computer hardware, such as monitors or computer chips; they only infect software.

A virus can manifest itself to you in either a benevolent or destructive manner. A Microsoft Word macro virus--recently one of the most popular forms of infection--called Lady Di shows a photograph of the late Princess and displays the words to the song Elton John sang at her funeral. Other more vicious viruses, such as the AutoStart 9805 Worm, can create havoc with your hard disk, but even the most innocent appearing viruses can have unintended consequences. Like the Lady Di virus, the majority of viruses are harmless. Some can cause your system to slow down or change the appearance of the icons or on-screen graphics--a sure sign of infection. The worst viruses can crash your system or damage or destroy data on your hard disk.

Virex 5.8 was manually run to check the contents of a 1GB Iomega Jaz cartridge. The test took less than a few seconds and reported that the cartridge was "clean." If it was not, Virex would have caught and stomped the virus dead.

Do You Have A Virus? Although some viruses alert you to their presence, the most common ones give few symptoms of their activity. Computer users can, however, be alert for some activities that can tip you off to the possibility of infection. Here are the 12 danger signs that you may have a computer virus:
1. Change in the size of a program.
2. Change in the file's date or time stamp.
3. A program or file icon changes.
4. Longer than normal program loading time.
5. Slower than normal system operation.
6. Indications of reduced memory or available disk space.
7. Error message about bad sectors on a floppy disk.
8. Odd or unusual error messages.
9. Unusual screen activity.
10. Failed program execution.
11. Failed system startups.
12. Unexpected writing activity on your hard disk.

Kinds Of Viruses. Like the real viruses that cause problems with your body, there are many different types of viruses and knowing some of the vocabulary can help protect you from possible infection.

All drives, hard or floppy, contain a boot sector containing information about that disk's formatting, and can be infected by viruses called Boot Sector Infectors. You get a boot sector virus by leaving an infected diskette in a drive and starting the computer. When the boot sector program is read and executed, the virus goes into memory and infects your hard drive. One example is the notorious Michelangelo virus that was set to destroy data on March 6th, Michelangelo's birthday. My friend Carl was infected by this virus which he caught from a commercially available software package.

File Infectors attach themselves to or replace .COM and .EXE files, although in some cases they can also infect files with extensions of .SYS, .DRV, .BIN, .OVL, and .OVY. Uninfected programs become infected when they are executed with the virus in memory. In other cases they are infected when they are opened or the virus infects all of the files in a directory.

The first sector of every hard drive contains the disk's Master Boot Record and Partition Table. The Master Boot Record has a small program called the Master Boot Program which looks up the values in the partition table for the starting location of the bootable partition, and then tells the system to go there and execute any code it finds. On floppy disks, these same kind of viruses can infect the boot sectors. You can catch a Master Boot Record virus by leaving an infected diskette in a drive and starting the computer. When the boot sector program is read and executed, the virus goes into memory and infects your hard drive.

A macro is a programmed series of commands that can perform a series of actions and is triggered by a keystroke or combination of keystrokes. Programs, like Microsoft's Word or Excel, allow users to create macros that will help them accomplish repetitive tasks. Macro viruses are built around the macro features found in Word and Excel and will attack all of your Word and Excel files. Some are merely mischievous and turn your documents into templates or display messages about the dangers of nuclear proliferation, while others can be as damaging to your hard disk as an H-bomb. Because Word and Excel files have the same file structure for Macintosh and Windows, macro viruses can infect spreadsheets, documents, and templates for both kinds of computers. That's one of the reasons Microsoft's Office 98 for the Macintosh contains a feature that allows you to disable macros when launching files that contain them. I expect the see the same feature in the Windows version of Office 98 when it is released.

A logic bomb is a virus that destroys data by reformatting your hard disk or by inserting random bits into data files rendering them useless. Once launched, a logic bomb does its damage right away, whereas a traditional virus keeps on eating dots like Pac Man until there is nothing left.

Multi-partite Viruses are a combination of several of the viruses listed and can infect both files and Master Book Records. These types of viruses are rare, but their number is steadily growing.

A polymorphic virus changes its binary pattern each time it infects a new file to prevent it from being identified. These are sometimes called "stealth" viruses. One particular virulent example is Elvira, which first appears as an on-screen poem. During the few seconds it takes to read the 12 words of verse, Elvira's polymorphic structure slips code onto your hard disk and can erase it in less time than it takes to read the poem.

A Trojan horse is a virus that is attached to a real program that you may have unsuspectingly downloaded. These kind of programs almost always have intriguing sounding names. One of the most famous, was one that promised to turn your CD-ROM drive into a CD-ROM recorder. This may be technically impossible with a software upgrade, but trusting web surfers looking for something for nothing, quickly found themselves infected. Trojan horses can be also used to locate any of your passwords or may alter an existing program, making it easier for the virus to gain access to it.

Worms are not just the type of people who create viruses but are also a type of virus itself that replicates itself throughout your hard disk and memory, using up all of the computer's resources and eventually crashing the system. The AutoStart 9805 Worm, which can affect any PowerPC-based Mac OS computer, is a stand-alone file that causes performance problems and corrupts files. All files affected by the AutoStart Worm are irreparable.

If you want to get more deeply into the pathology of viruses, check out two web sites devoted to the study and eradication of computer viruses: The Virus Bulletin home page at and Doug Muth's AntiVirus Help Page at

Users of any of Symantec's antivirus programs will want to visit the Symantec AntiVirus Research Center, which includes software updaters and useful information, such as an online encyclopedia of viruses.

A Clean Room Strategy. There are two major truths about computer viruses: Nobody sets out to catch one and nobody thinks it can happen to them. You can make your computer completely virus proof if you take a few simple steps:
1. Do not connect your computer to the Internet.
2. Never send or receive e-mail; especially with files attached.
3. The only floppy disks you use in your system are brand new, out of the box.
4. Never use any floppy disk, Zip, or any removable media cartridge that has been read or written to by any other person's computer.
5. Avoid shareware programs.
6. Don't use any floppy disks or CD-ROMs that are not part of a commerical software package.

As you can see, the safest way to avoid getting a virus is similar to how you can avoid the human kind: If you avoid all contact with people, your chances of getting a virus are infinitesimal. If you avoid any kind of digital contact with other people, your computer will be safe. The problem is that neither choice is an option for most of us. According to Network Associates, there are over 300 new viruses created each month, which is why installing virus protection software is the best solution for protecting your hard drive. All viruses have a "signature" which is a binary pattern of the machine code of a particular virus. Antivirus programs have libraries of virus signatures they use to detect and, in most cases, cure known viruses.

Kill Bugs Fast. For the Apple Macintosh and compatible computers, such as my Power Computing PowerTower, the best solution is Virex from Dr Solomon's Software. Virex Protects against macro viruses, one of the most common forms of infection, automatically scans all files downloaded from the Internet, and will scan compressed files. You can set the program's preferences to scan every floppy disk or removable media disk inserted into your computer. There is some performance loss you take while the software searches each disk for viruses, but it is far less than you will encounter if a virus is present.

Virex provides other ways to diagnose viruses and Trojan horses: It can manually scan volumes, files and folders, and provide reports of what it finds. Virex provides a snapshot feature that allows files to be analyzed for changes over time that may indicate a potentially dangerous unknown infector. Once Virex detects an infected file, it is capable of eliminating the threat by completely removing the virus programming code from the file, or, in the case of a Trojan horse, deleting the offending file. Where a virus has already caused damage to a file, Virex can usually repair the damage and return it to working condition. Since viruses are constantly being created, subscribing to an update service or downloading monthly updates is important to keep your software working against the latest viruses. Dr Solomon's offers a modestly priced update service that automatically e-mails new virus updates and ships all future software upgrades so you don't have to worry about whether your protection is up-to-date. As an alternative, you can download monthly virus updates from their web site at

Using its "Bloodhound" technology, Norton AntiVirus for Macintosh 5.0 can detect and repair new and unknown macro viruses. Bloodhound analyzes files for virus-like behaviors and allows for immediate repair of the infected file. The program has an Auto Repair function that allows users to repair a file containing a virus, without even opening the Norton AntiVirus application itself. A Universal SafeZone acts as a virtual clean room so any files copied or downloaded onto your hard disk can be scanned in isolation and be declared safe before being used. Users can download the latest virus definitions from the Symantec Anti-Virus Research center on the Internet via the program's Live Update feature. This feature can be scheduled to run automatically ensuring you are protected again the latest virus threats. Users who have heard that the previousl version ran a little slow, will be happy to learn that Version 5.0 is PowerPC native and allows for faster scans. The program also supports the new HFS+ hard disk format offered by the latest version of Mac OS 8.0. The package also contains a bootable CD-ROM, so you can start from the CD in the event that a virus has made it impossible to start your computer from its hard drive.

If you are only slightly concerned about viruses, you may want to try a freeware Mac OS virus protection program called Disinfectant. Unlike commercially available programs, the program is only occasionally updated, but may be adequate if you practice some of the "clean room" strategies previously mentioned. You should be aware that Disinfectant will not protect against Word or Excel macro viruses, but if you don't use either of these programs, that kind of infection is not a problem for you. A copy of Disinfectant is available from all of the usual freeware sources, including

Windows On Viruses. The three McAfee VirusScan products from Network Associates are designed to detect viruses from floppy disks, Internet downloads, e-mail attachments, and network shared files. Since current estimates are that 70 percent of all virus infections are being transmitted by Internet dowload and e-mail attachments, McAfee VirusScan scans all downloads and attachments to stop a virus before it infects your system. The package includes an Emergency Disk creation utility that lets you recover from a boot virus infection. The basic Virus Scan package detects and removes viruses for all popular PC-based operating systems, including DOS, O/S 2, Microsoft Windows 3.1 as well as Windows 95 and NT. The Deluxe version includes a QuickBackup utility and two years of free product updates. The Security Suite includes WebScanX which provides protection from hostile Java and ActiveX applets on the Internet, while letting useful ones continue to operate. While most applets are safe, virus makers are using them to create mayhem on your system by deleting files, stealing information, and crashing your system.

Symantec's Norton AntiVirus 5.0 for many different computer systems including Windows 95/98, NT Workstations, NT Servers, as well as specialized protection for Mircrosoft Exchange, Lotus Notes, and Internet E-mail Gateways. Norton AntiVirus 4.0 is available for Windows 3.x and DOS systems. The features found in Version 5.0 let you quarantine infected files in a safe corner of your computer until you're able to repair them. This quarantine area ensures that your other files stay clean and you won't accidentally send infected files to anyone else. The Scan and Deliver wizard makes it possible to send quarantined or other suspicious files to Symantec for evaluation. The SARC staff will reply quickly with advice and any needed virus definitions. Norton AntiVirus automatically protects you against viruses as well as infected ActiveX and Java applets you might encounter in the Net. Norton AntiVirus runs in the background to keep your computer safe from viruses that might come in from e-mail attachments, Internet downloads, floppy diskettes, software CDs, and even from a network. The program can be scheduled to automatically retrieve new antivirus definitions from SARC as often as once a week. Symantec's Bloodhound technology sniffs out and eliminates any new viruses that might arise between virus updates. You can download a 30-day trial version that lets you quarantine an infected file and send it to Symantec for analysis.

While you can't get a virus from the e-mail itself, if you open the attachment, you may have also opened Pandora's Box. You may want to take a look at Panda Software's Panda Antivirus if you use the Windows versions of Microsoft's Exchange or Outlook for e-mail software. Despite the cute name, Panda Antivirus is designed to detect and disinfect viruses before they are copied to your hard drive and is well integrated with the Exchange/Outlook interface. Panda Antivirus analyzes embedded OLE documents as well as compressed files in many different formats. This program also works on files that have unlimited levels of compression and for unlimited number of times. Panda Antivirus will intercept read and write operations on both new and existing messages and stomp out any viruses it finds. An evaluation copy can be downloaded from their web site at


Network Associates, Inc.
(Dr Solomon's Software)
3965 Freedom Circle
Santa Clara, CA 95054
(408) 988-3832
fax: (408) 970-9727

Panda Software
580 Washington St.
San Francisco, CA 94111
(415) 392-5850
fax: (415) 392-6116

Symantec Corporation
2500 Broadway, Suite 200
Santa Monica, CA 90404
(310) 453-4600
fax: (310) 453-0636