small part of a photograph of oil wells was damaged in
processing with fine scratch lines, some of which print
black and others print white.
Photos © 1998, David B. Brooks, All Rights Reserved
For photographers one of
the greatest advantages of digital photo processing is the ability to
do all of your retouching, repair, and spotting just once and store
it permanently in a computer file. Then, every print or other reproduction
of the image is perfectly clean. You never have to spot or retouch that
image again no matter how many times it is printed. Additionally, digital
retouching is much easier, faster to accomplish, can be much more precise,
extensive, as well as being entirely undetectable, when done with a
computer. Learning how to retouch, cleanup, and repair a digital photograph
on a computer is a simple process that requires learning just a few
simple tools. Skill and refinement in retouching come with practice
and the application of visual attention and discrimination which accumulates
and refines the eye over time.
using Photoshop's Rubber Stamp brush tool the scratch
lines were easily removed by replacing the color information
with adjacent image tones.
Digital photo retouching can
be accomplished with any computer that's sufficient to run Photoshop
and other photo image-editing applications like PhotoPaint, Photo-Impact,
and Picture Publisher. All of the major image-editing applications, and
some of the lesser consumer photo applications, have the tools (brushes)
required to do basic retouching. The standard hardware that comes with
most computers is also sufficient to do photo retouching, but the ubiquitous
mouse has distinct limitations applied to this task. A more precise and
efficient tool is a drawing or graphics tablet. For this introductory
article on digital photo retouching I acquired the use of the latest Wacom
Intuos 9x12" graphics tablet, which is supplied with a pressure
sensitive pen and their new 4D Mouse. I found this new size Wacom tablet
and the new 4D Mouse an ideal setup for the most precise and efficient
application of digital photo retouching.
and power lines are the worst enemy of a photographer, cluttering
up a scene with distracting lines. This sunset street scene
of Virginia City, Nevada was almost discarded were it not
for the computer's ability to retouch out all of the
offending wires and cables.
The Basics Of Digital
Photo Retouching. Essentially most digital retouching can be
done with just one primary tool for all three kinds of work you may require
doing: spotting specs of dirt and minor scratches in film scans, repairing
major damage and removing and replacing ugly distractions in an image,
as well as doing cosmetic retouching on people's images. In Photoshop
that tool is the Rubber Stamp, and in other applications it is sometimes
referred to as a Clone brush. This brush-type tool is quite unique, although
it applies image information like many other brushes, because it obtains
that information from a designated location in the image in which you
In retouching minor flaws the purpose of using the Stamp/Clone brush tool
is to replace a white or black dirt spot with color/tone information from
the area that immediately surrounds the dirt spot. This is accomplished,
after clicking on the Stamp/Clone brush tool, by locating the area next
to the "spot" with which you want to replace the spot with
the mouse cursor, and then by depressing a control key (Alt in Photoshop).
Select that reference spot by simultaneously clicking the mouse button
(left button in Windows). This sets the relative location of where the
Stamp/Clone brush tool obtains its color information. Then place the mouse
cursor on the spot you want to remove and click the mouse button. The
spot is replaced by color and tone information from the area near it you
selected. Then, if you move the mouse cursor to another spot you want
to fill-in with adjacent color, the cursor pickup reference point moves
with the cursor and is located the same distance and angle from where
the cursor is located in the center of a dirt spot you want to retouch.
just using Photoshop's Rubber Stamp brush tool and
carefully placing the pickup point as I moved along, I was
able to replace all of the cables and wires making them
entirely disappear so the picture looks like they were never
As you fill-in this little
speck of black, that spot of white, in a blue sky for instance, you may
find that the reference pickup point for the Stamp/Clone brush needs to
be moved to another angle or distance from where the spot is to get just
the right color and tone to fill-in the offending bit of dirt. To move
the pickup reference point for the Stamp/Clone brush tool, locate the
cursor at the new area from which you want to select information and depress
the control key while you click the mouse button. As you go from one area
in an image to another to cleanup dirt and scratches, you will find you
may not have to relocate the Stamp/Clone brush pickup point for every
spot you fill-in, just some where the spot may be next to a shadow, highlight,
or other image detail.
"shadow" and lines under a portrait subject's
eyes always look more pronounced in a photograph than what
you noticed in real life.
Obviously, like working on
actual film or a print in analog mode, with a computer you'll need
to magnify the image to do the spotting and retouching. So, use the application's
zoom view control to display just a small portion of the image magnified
so it fills the entire screen. I find when retouching 20MB image files,
which I use for making 11x14 prints, that I have the best visual control
of the Stamp/Clone brush at 150-200 percent of actual image size. In addition
to this adjustment, most applications like Photoshop support specifying
the size of brush tools, as well as sometime the shape, and equally important
the edge softness of the brush, which aids in blending the information
applied into the surrounding image area. However, in some image subject
areas, like human hair, you may need to use very little edge softening
to preserve the fine image detail. This fine detail area retouching often
requires selecting a smaller brush size as well, and also working at a
higher image magnification (zoom) setting.
and softening face tones using Photoshop's Rubber
Stamp brush tool, I've found, works best with the
transparency adjustment set at 50 percent. This supports
gradually shifting clean skin tones to replace the shadowed
fine lines under a subject's eyes. I also use the
freehand selection tool with a five pixel soft edge to outline
the eyes and then use the Brightness/Contrast adjustment,
increasing both to add sparkle to the eyes.
Also, with most applications
like Photoshop, you can define the degree of transparency of the brush's
application of information. If transparency is set at 100 percent, then
the area where the brush applies image color and tone is replaced completely
with the new information. If the transparency of the brush is adjusted
to less than 100 percent, 50 percent for instance, half of the original
information density remains after application and half is the new information.
This ability to adjust transparency makes it possible to gradually replace
the color and tone in an area with color and tone from another, making
the softening of shadows under the eyes and the hiding of blemishes in
skin tones, subtle and smooth while preserving the natural texture and
contours of complexion tones.
combination of natural cracks and shiny lipstick creates
strong, distracting highlights and shadows.
Sometimes when a larger area
of an image has been damaged, replacing the damage with adjacent image
information does not blend into the picture and provide as smooth a result
as you would like. Another brush found in most applications, which usually
has a water drop icon symbol and is sometimes called a Blur tool, applies
local softening. This brush will soften edges and irregularities, and
can be used gradually, by making multiple applications, to attain just
the right amount of smoothness and blending. Also, in some instances the
damaged area requiring retouching includes fine detail. Another brush
that "smears" color information from one area to another,
often called a Smudge brush, is also useful in blending and even reshaping
color information in the area of an image which includes fine detail that
has been severely damaged. All of these brushes, like the Rubber Stamp,
can be size adjusted, and the degree of effect can also be lessened or
intensified, as well as the edge of the brushes' application area
softened to varying degrees.
using Photoshop's Rubber Stamp brush tool set at 50
percent transparency, select a small brush size and fill-in
the stray highlights and soften the dark shadows with adjacent
lip color. The freehand selection tool was again used to
outline the teeth, and the Hue/Saturation adjustments was
used to reduce color and lighten the teeth.
The Wacom Intuos 9x12
For nearly all
of the 10 years I've been doing image processing on a computer,
I've used a graphics tablet to do retouching. The few times when
I have had to use a mouse for this purpose I found my work was far less
precise, and it was slow progress and frustratingly difficult to do well.
So, why should I need a new Wacom Intuos graphics tablet to do this project?
Well, even though the graphics tablet is as mature technology as computer
peripherals go, Wacom has made the first "ideal" 9x12"
sized tablet, and added some great efficiency features like the 4D Mouse--not
to mention, refining the entire product from its ergonomic physical design
to its software.
First of all, the beauty of a graphics tablet is that in a size like 9x12",
it corresponds in area to that of the monitor screen. And, because the
position of the sensor (pen or mouse on the tablet) is absolutely related
(1:1 with a 17" monitor) to the position of the cursor on-screen,
the hand control is extremely precise. For retouching I personally prefer,
having worked with both pen and mouse (formerly related to in tablet lingo
as a puck), the Wacom Intuos 4D Mouse provides a surer grasp for steadier
control. In addition, the programmable buttons (five on the 4D Mouse),
allow assigning functions which are a great aid in retouching, reducing
the number of keystroke and cursor movements necessary to using and adjusting
the Rubber Stamp and other tools. Another feature of the Intuos 4D Mouse
is a side wheel, which can function like the Microsoft Intellimouse wheel
for navigation, or in Photoshop with a new plug-in the wheel can control
the Zoom function to adjust the magnification of the image on-screen.
Like the entire Intuos system, the 4D Mouse is easily converted from right
to left-hand use. In fact, the 4D Mouse can be used, with cursor movement
turned off, in one hand to input button commands or rotate 3D objects,
masks, etc., while working with a pen in the other hand.
Evaluation And Recommendation.
As I noted, I have been a graphics tablet user for most of the time I've
been doing digital image processing, and when I obtained the loan of the
Wacom Intuos 9x12, I still had and have another tablet functioning on
another Windows workstation. Regardless, I have found the Intuos 9x12
so advantageous to my work, Wacom will not get it back--just a check.
There is much more in features and tools, like a new Intuos Airbrush,
as well as software support for the tablet and pen pressure input by every
major imaging application I know of, as well as some I've never
even heard of. The 9x12 Wacom Intuos graphics tablet, including both the
pen and 4D Mouse, lists at $509. The Intuos line of tablets includes a
full range of sizes from 4x5 to 12x18", and supports Apple Macintosh,
Windows, and SGI systems. Extensive and detailed information is available
from the company's web site at: www.wacom.com
or call (800) 922-6613.